Anemia generally refers to reduced number of the red blood cell in the blood below the normal quantity or less quantity of hemoglobin. Anemia could also imply that the capacity of the blood to bind oxygen and hemoglobin. This leads to a situation in which there is reduced oxygen supply to the body for physiological processes. The condition in which the oxygen supply is insufficient is referred to as hypoxia. Considering the fact that all human cells depend on Oxygen for efficient functioning, varying levels of anemia have differing clinical consequences
Anemia is the most prevalent disorder of the blood and is classified depending on the morphological characteristic of the red blood cells, visible clinical spectra e.t.c. The three major categories of amnesia include excessive loss of blood which may occur in the form of acute hemorrhage or the chronic low volume blood loss, haemolysis which is the excessive destruction of the red blood cells and the production of very few red blood cells.
Diagnosis of Anemia is based on two major approaches, the ‘kinetic’ approach and the ‘morphologic approach. The ‘kinetic’ approach’ entails analysis of the production, the destruction and the loss of red blood cells. On the other hand the morphologic categories anemia with consideration to the size of the red blood cell. The morphologic approach utilizes easily accessible and cheap lab test at the initial stages of the test. The kinetic approach allows the rapid exposure of the anemia cases in the circumstances where the various causes exist concurrently.
The classification of anemia is equally based on the red blood cell size and the production-loss consideration. The sizes of the red blood cells give rise to three types of anemia; the microcytic, normocytic and the macrocytic anemia. The macrocytic anemia is due to extremely small red blood cell a size below the normal 80fl. The normocytic anemia is the anemic condition with the red blood cells having the normal size of 80-100fl and the macrocytic anemia is the case where the red blood cell are larger than normal, a size of more than 100fl. This classification scheme effectively reveals a number of the common causes of anemia. It is deducible that the microcytic anemia is normally the result of deficiency of iron.
The production-destruction scheme is the most reliable in classifying anemia. It depends on the analysis of several aspects of the blood. It leads to the categorization of the condition based on reduction in the production of the red blood cells as compared to an increase in the red blood cells destruction. The signs of loss or destruction are very important in this classification and include haemolysis and indications of bleeding