Sleeping disorder is a medical condition which involves the disruption of the normal sleep patterns. Also called somnipathy it can be serious enough to interfere with an individuals emotional mental and physical capabilities negatively. It involves deterioration in a person’s amount, quality and the timing of sleep and the behavior during sleep. This deterioration to qualify as a sleep disorder must be persistent for a period. Sleep disorder exist in many types; over seventy different types to be precise.
The diagnosis of sleep disorders involves taking into consideration a person’s age due to the fact that sleeping 0patterns vary with the person’s age. The most common sleep disorders are insomnia, sleep apnea, bruxism, snoring and night walking. It remains a very crucial thing to discover the cause of the sleep disorder because the treatment and the final cure of the disorder primarily depend on the elimination of the cause.
Sleep disorders can be successfully categorized into four classes
- the dyssomnia,
- the parassomnias,
- those caused by neurological and/or psychological complications and
- The sleeping sickness.
The Dyssomnia are a class which is associated which less sleeping as a result of disruptions of the nighttime sleep or poor sleep, in which case the condition is referred to as insomnia. The dyssomnias are a mixture of several conditions within the body system and yields other three classes;
- the intrinsic sleep disorder,
- the extrinsic sleep disorder and
- the Circadian-rhythm disorder
The intrinsic sleep disorders include narcolepsy which is the result of neurological disorder. The implication here is that the brain is incapable of controlling the amount of sleep an indiv8idual can have and therefore sleeps for long hours. The obstructive sleep apnea also fall in this category and is a condition in which an individual experiences alternating periods 0of deep and light sleep due to the pauses in the intake of air. It results in overall poor sleep and the general fatigue during the day. And finally the restless leg syndrome a neurological condition which compels a person to move the limbs during sleep as a means of offsetting the uncomfortable position of sleep. All this intrinsic sleep disorders are caused by factors that are within the body.
The extrinsic sleep disorders come to existence due to the prevailing factors in the external environment while the Circadian- rhythm syndrome is due to a cycle of sleeping and waking.
The Parassomnias are the most loathsome conditions as in this category include sleepwalking and the night terrors which occur during the sleeping time. In this category are also the REM- rapid eye movement parassomnias and the cycle of periods of sleep and wakefulness. Sleep walking entails the patient rising during slow wave sleep stage with partial consciousness and performing the chores they normally do in full consciousness, on the other hand night terrors involves the patients sleep suddenly cut short with screams and shouts of absolute terror and the patient’s behavior exhibit signs of fear and fright. Bruxism or grinding of the teeth, bedwetting, sleep talking, sleep sex and waking up hearing non existent loud noises are also examples of parassomnias.
Neurological or psychological complications that may lead to the sleep disorders include psychosis which is a condition in which the patient is deranged mad or has lost touch with reality, Mood disorders like being depressed or having anxiety, panic and alcoholism form part of this category
Sleeping sickness is a disease caused by a parasite which is transmitted to the body by the tsetse fly bite.