Thyroid gland is located just below the skin and muscles at the front of the neck. Though it a small gland it has numerous tasks and it’s very important in the proper body functionality. Some of the responsibilities for the thyroid gland include the manufacture of thyroid hormone which is very essential in controlling metabolism, structure of bones, sexual development and growth. For it to manufacture this hormone, the thyroid gland needs a chemical substance called iodine that the body absorbs from the food and the drinks one takes .Thyroid hormones are released from the gland and transmitted to the body cells through the blood stream.
Thyroid disease now occurs when the thyroid doesn’t supply the proper amount of hormones needed in the body. Sometimes, the glands may become too overactive resulting in the production of large amounts of thyroid hormones which in turn can lead to a situation known as hyperthyroidism (this makes the body to use up energy more quickly than it should and the chemical activity such as metabolism in the cells speeds up). The situation causes nervousness, irritability, increased perspiration, intolerance to heat, fatigue, difficulty sleeping, muscle weakness, irregular menstrual cycle in girls and fast heartbeats.
Also the thyroid may also be underactive and this automatically means that there will be little production of the thyroid hormone resulting to a situation known as hypothyroidism where by the amount of hormone released into the blood stream is below normal supply and the body uses up the energy slowly and the chemical activities such as metabolism slows down. In such a situation one may feel depressed and sluggish and one may add weight regardless of the little food they eat. In both cases that is hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism the thyroid can be large than normal and the lamp can be felt under the skin at the front of the neck and that which is large enough to be seen is called goiter. This is much common to people who don’t get enough iodine in their diets.